The most widespread military action in Civil War Georgia occurred in the Northwest Georgia Mountains between September 1863 and July 1864 as Confederate forces tried to fend off Sherman’s advance upon Atlanta. The Chickamauga and Kennesaw Battefiled sites are major points in the area.
The depot was witness to the last leg of the Great Locomotive Chase. It is here that Captain Fuller boarded the southbound Texas, dropped the freight cars, and roared out in pursuit of the Raiders’ General--in reverse! The depot is the focal point of the annual Great Locomotive Chase Festival held the first weekend in October.
Adairsville, GA 30313
Exit 306 off I-75, west on GA 140 to Business district
Barnsley Gardens at Woodlands
This unique Italianate-Gothic Manor and gardens was begun in the 1850s by Englishman Sir Godfrey Barnsley. Because Barnsley invested all of his available funds in Confederate War Bonds and donated his fleet of twelve ships to the Confederate Navy, his fortune was destroyed and his dream castle never completed. Barnsley Gardens fell in the path of the west flank of Sherman’s southern movement and was occupied by Gen. McPherson May 18-19, 1864. Although McPherson protected Barnsley’s estate, the property was ransacked when he left.
Barnsley Gardens Rd.
Adairsville, GA 30103
Exit 306 off I-75, west on GA 140 approximately 10 miles, follow signs
- Battle of Allatoona Pass
This battle occurred on October 5, 1864, when Confederate Gen. Hood attacked Gen. Sherman’s supply line. Several historical markers are located at the intersection of Old Alabama Road and the Western and Atlantic Railroad; the Allatoona Dam Overlook; the Old Clayton House; and at Allatoona Creek (Ga. 293, south of Emerson). The Federal fort and the Clayton House are associated with inspiring the revival hymn, Hold the Fort.
Exit #283 off I-75, follow Old Allatoona Road to the east about 1.5 miles
- Cartersville Depot
A rear guard of Gne. Johnston’s retreat on May 19th encountered Federal Troops in Cartersville and skirmishing erupted near the depot on May 20th. Confederates barricaded themselves inside the depot and knocked out blocks for gun ports. Today, a 25’ x 50’ section of the original structure remains.
Carterville, GA 30120
I-75 to Cartersville Exit, follow signs to downtown
- Cooper’s Iron Works (NRHP)
A remnant of the antebellum industrial center started by Mark Anthony Cooper at Etowah, Georgia. An important Confederate iron supplier, Cooper sold the Iron Works to the CSA in 1863. Sherman saw to its destruction in May 1864. One remaining cold-blast furnace stands as a lone memorial to the Cooper iron empire. A scenic picnic area on the Etowah River is maintained at this site by the Corps of Engineers.
(Exit US Hwy 41 onto River Road at the Etowah River and follow the signs)
- Etowah Historical Foundation Museum
Museum of Bartow County history featuring exhibits detailing the county’s role in the Civil War. Displays include weapons, battlefield recovered artifacts, photos, and maps from war times.
3198 Cherokee Avenue
Cartersville, GA 30120
Houses United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) Civil War Collections. Directly across the street from antebellum First Baptist Church which received $5,000 from the U.S. Government in 1904 in restitution for damage done to it by Federal soldiers in 1864.
224 West Cherokee Ave.
Cartersville, GA 30120
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Visitor Center
Center features Civil War relics, photographs and memorabilia of Mark Cooper and the role Cooper’s Iron Works played in the Confederacy.
Cartersville, GA 30120
Exit 290 of I-75, east on GA 20 to GA 294
Battle of Cassville
Cassville was the site of a battle on May 18, 1864, between Confederate forces commanded by Gne. Johnston, and the 20th and 23rd Corps, Union forces commanded by Lt. Gen. Scholfield. On November 5, 1864, the town was burned by Union forces. In the confederate Cemetery a marker recounts the burial of about 300 unknown Confederate soldiers who died of disease or wounds in the several Confederate hospitals located in Cassville. Another marker in the cemetery designates the grave of Gen. William Tatum Wofford (1824-1884).
Old US 41 (north of Cartersville)
I-75 at Cassville/White exit
Chickamauga / Fort Oglethorpe
Catoosa County and Walker County
Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military Park (NRHP)
Chickamauga, an Indian word for “River of Death,” describes one of the ten bloodiest battles of the War. In September, 1863, two days of hard fighting between the Confederate forces of Gen. Braxton Bragg and the Federal Army of Gen. William. S. Rosecrans ended with Rosecrans retreating to Chattanooga. The confederates stopped the northern advance aided by Longstreet’s troops from Northern Virginia who had been transported hundreds of miles by train.
This 5000-acre reservation, purchased by Congress in 1892, was the first major Civil Was battlefield set aside as a memorial to the soldiers who fought there. Facilities include the Chickamauga Battlefield and Visitor Center with interpretive exhibits and a state of the art multi-media presentation on the battle. The Fuller Gun Museum features 355 US should weapons. Visitors should also see Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge hat are nearby in Tennessee.
Fort Oglethorpe, GA 30742
South of Chattanooga on US 27
Gordon-Lee Mansion (NRHP)
This antebellum mansion completed in 1847 is now a bed and breakfast; it was used as a hospital in 1863 and as Gen. Rosecrans’ headquarters. It is one of the few remaining structures used during the Battle of Chickamauga.
Group tours by appointment.
217 Cove Road
Chickamauga, GA 30370
12 miles south of downtown Chattanooga
Lee and Gordon Mill (NRHP)
Lee and Gordon Mill, one of the oldest mills in the state of Georgia, is located near the Chickamauga-Chattanooga Military Park. It is the site of an important landmark of the battle of Chickamauga. A restoration of the post war mill site is in progress.
Lee and Gordon Mill Road
Chickamauga, GA 30707
- New Hope Church Monument and Battle Site (HM)
New Hope Church Monument and Battle Site are maintained by the Pickett’s Mill State Historic Site. On May 25, 1864, Union troops struck Stewart’s division on this site and several hours of bitter conflict followed. The battle was renewed the following day. From two miles south of Dallas, Confederate and Union forces on a ten-mile front maintained daily conflict for ten days.
4 miles northeast of Dallas, on GA 381.
Pickett’s Mill State Historic Site (NRHP)
Pickett’s Mill is the site of a severe battle, May 27, 1864, which represents one of the few Confederate victories during the Atlanta Campaign. The 765 acres, with trails to various emplacements, remain in almost pristine condition since the battle. A visitor center and museum feature an audiovisual program on the battle, and living history demonstrations are also available.
The site of a Confederate winter camp of 1863-1864. From here Gen. Joseph E. Johnston began the defense of Georgia against Gen. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign. Dalton was also the site of the “Great Civil War Snowball Battle” which occurred among the Confederate soldiers while they were in camp here.
- Atlanta Campaign Relief Map and Picnic Area (NRHP)
This picnic area contains a map describing the area events of May 7-13, 1864: Sherman’s unsuccessful attacks on Mill Creek Gap, Crown Valley, and Dug Gap Mountain; Gen. McPherson’s successful flanking movement to the southeast; and Gen. Johnston’s evacuation of Dalton.
Rocky Face Ridge Phase
US Hwy 41
Exit 336 off I-75, north 1 mile to US 41, in front of Georgia State Patrol building on left
- The Blunt House (NRHP)
This site was built in 1848 by Ainsworth Emery Blunt, Dalton’s first Mayor, and served as a federal hospital in 1864. Telephone for an appointment at 706-278-0217.
506 S. Thornton Ave.
Dalton, GA 30720
Exit 333 of I-75, east 1.6 miles on Walnut Ave., turn left on Thornton Ave.; the house is in the 3rd bock on the left. Parking available behind First United Methodist Church. Historical marker in front of house.
Confederate Cemetery and Monument (NRHP)
Throughout 1862, until the evacuation of hospitals farther south in September 1863, the Confederate casualties of battles in Northwest Georgia were saved or lost in makeshift Dalton hospitals. Here rest 421 Confederate and four Union soldiers, all nameless, as well as four known Confederate soldiers. A monument to the Confederate dead from the battles of Dalton, Rocky Face, Chickamauga and Resaca was erected in 1892 to commemorate their loss. A memorial service is held here each April by the UDC, SCV, and the Civil War Round Table.
Exit 333 of I-75, east 1.6 miles on Walnut Ave, north 0.3 miles on Tibbs Road, east 0.7 miles on Emery Street, turn left at bottom of hill across from Greenwood Street onto road leading to West Hill Cemetery. The Confederate Cemetery is surrounded by an iron fence.
Crown Gardens and Archives (NRHP)
Home of the Whitfield-Murray Historical Society, this was the antebellum office of the Crown Cotton Mill. This site houses Civil War relics, a bedspread museum, and research material on the Civil War and genealogy.
715 Chattanooga Ave.
Dalton, GA 30720
Exit 336 off I-75, east 16 miles on US 41, south 1 miles on Chattanooga Ave. Crown Gardens is on the right.
Dug Gap Battle Park
Dug Gap was an important pioneer road which passed through the gap to Dalton and the W & A Railroad. Two attempts by Union forces to take the gap were repulsed on February 25 and May 8, 1864, and are described by several historical markers in the area. The Civl War Round Table of Dalton restored the breastworks of this battle area, making it into a park.
Exit 333 off I-75, west 1.6 miles on Walnut Ave./Dug Gap Battle Road. Park is on right side of road.
- Statue of General Joseph E. Johnston (NRHP)
This is the only statue in the country which is dedicated to Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. It was erected in 1912 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy.
Exit 333 off I-75, east 1.6 miles on Walnut Ave., left on Thornton 0.4 miles, right on Morris Street 0.1 miles, left on Hamilton Street, intersection of Hamilton and Crawford Streets (third stop light) on Hamilton.
- Western and Atlantic Depot (NRHP)
This 1852 depot served as the CSA Dalton Ordinance Depot in 1862-63. From here the Confederate commander in Chattanooga was wired that The General had been stolen in the Great Locomotive Chase.
The Dalton Depot Restaurant
110 Depot Street
Dalton, GA 30720
Exit 333 off I-75, east 1.6 miles on Walnut Ave., left on Thornton 0.4 miles, right on Morris Street 0.1 miles, left on Hamilton St. turn right on Cutler St. (at fourth stop light). Depot is directly in front of you.
- Kingston Confederate Cemetery (NRHP)
A Confederate monument marks the graves of 250 Confederate soldiers and four Union soldiers. Here is the site of the one of the nation’s earliest “Decoration Day” (later Confederate Memorial Day), where the decoration of the graves of Confederate and Union soldiers became an annual tradition in April each year.
- Kingston Depot (HM) (NRHP)
Here Confederate pursuers Fuller, Cain and Murphy exchanged the small engine Yonah for the Rome R.R. locomotive William R. Smith, which carried them to Adairsville in their chase of Andrew’s Raiders.
- McCravey-Johnson House (NRHP)
Here Bartow countian Brig. Gen. William T. Wofford surrendered the last contingent of the Confederate troops east of the Mississippi on May 12, 1865. An estimated 4,000 Confederate soldiers were paroled. Ironically, Wofford, a Bartow County delegate to Georgia’s Secession Convention, voted against seceding from the Union, as did the two other Bartow County delegates. A historical marker on Church Street identifies the virtually unchanged structure.
- John B. Gordon Hall (NRHP)
Built in 1836,, this academy was in the line of fire during the Battle of LaFayette that occurred in the downtown area in 1864. Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg established headquarters here on September 10, 1863, and laid the groundwork for the Battle of Chickamauga. The structure was recently restored and re-named for a former pupil: Confederate Gen. and Governor of Georgia, John B. Gordon.
US Hwy 27
- McLemore’s Cove (NRHP)
This broad, beautiful valley with pristine grasslands between Lookout Mountain and Pigeon Mountain was the site of a failed attempt to trap 20,000 Federal Troops of the Army of the Cumberland in September, 1863. The failure of Gen. Bragg’s lieutenants to trap Gen. Thomas was a major gaffe.
Battle of Resaca
Gordon and Whitfield County
This was the first major battle of the Atlanta Campaign and is described by several historical markers scattered throughout the community. Aligned upon the hills north and west of Resaca, Confederates withstood repeated assaults between May 13-15, 1864. On May 16, Gen. Johnston withdrew from Resaca on a pontoon bridge. Two miles north of Resaca, east of US Hwy 41, is a cemetery, established after the war for the Confederate soldiers who fell at the Battle of Resaca. This battle is reenacted annually the third weekend of May.
Exit 318 of I-75, north to Resaca on US 41, approximately 9.5 miles south of Dalton.
- Site of the Battle of Ringgold, November 27, 1863. The Union army maintained an advance position here during the winter. From here Sherman began the Atlanta Campaign, May 7 through September 2, 1864.
Exit 348 off I-75, east on GA 151 to dead end, turn right on US 41
- Atlanta Campaign Relief Map
This roadside park built in the 1930s by the WPA contains a relief map that graphically describes the Atlanta Campaign.
Exit 348 off I-75, east on GA 151 to dead end, turn right on US 41. Map and overlook are 1 miles south of Ringgold on right side of the road.
- Old Stone Presbyterian Hospital (NRHP)
This sandstone building built in 1850 was used as a hospital following the Battle of Ringgold. Blood stains are said to be visible on the floor of the church.
Exit 345 off I-75, north on US 41 towards Ringgold, located at intersection of US 41/76 and GA Hwy 2)
- Western and Atlantic Depot (NRHP)
The only depot between Atlanta and Chattanooga that has been in continuous use since 1850. The fourteen inch thick sandstone walls were badly damaged during the Battle of Ringgold. Confederate forces held Ringgold long enough for the main army to establish defenses at Dalton in November, 1863.
Exit 348 off I-75, east on GA 151 to dead end, turn right on US 41, go under railroad bridge, take first left, depot is on left.
- Confederate Monument
West 13th Street
This monument is dedicated to the heroism of soldiers from Texas who fought in Rome’s defense in May, 1864. It marks the site of Confederate Fort Stovall.
I-75 to Rome exit
- Confederate Women’s Monument (NRHP)
Myrtle Hill Cemetery
Believed to be the first monument of its type created in the Western hemisphere, this monument to the glory of women is dedicated to the women of the Confederacy who cared for the wounded, both Confederate and Union.
- First Presbyterian Church
101 East 3rd Avenue
This sanctuary, which remains virtually unchanged, was used as a hospital during the Civil War.
- Myrtle Hill Cemetery (NRHP)
South Broad Street & Myrtle Street
Open all year, daylight hours
The Confederate Cemetery at Myrtle Street is the final resting place of 363 Confederate and two Union soldiers. The monument to Confederate Soldiers atop the cemetery marks the position of Confederate Fort Stovall.
- Noble Brothers Foundry (HM)
100 block of Broad Street
Nearby is the site of the Noble Armory Building and the Dickinson and Nelson Rifle Factory, where carriages were made for the Noble cannons and rifles were made for the State of Alabama. A marker showing the grounds of the Noble Brothers Foundry and Machine Shop, where cannon barrels were fabricated, stands at the corner of Broad St. and 1st Ave. The Noble Brothers lathes, used to manufacture approximately 70 cannons can be seen at the Rome Visitors Center. In November 1864, Gen. Sherman destroyed the foundry and all factories that might be useful to the Confederacy.
At the intersection of Broad Street and 2nd Ave.
- Saint Paul African-Methodist-Episcopal Church
6th Avenue and West 2nd Street
This church was built in 1852 and was the sanctuary of the original Methodist-Episcopal Church. Union troops stabled their horses inside this building during the war.
- Statue of Lt. General Nathan Bedford Forrest (NRHP)
Myrtle Hill Cemetery
Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s forces of 425 men saved Rome from capture by 1,500 Union forces in May, 1863, when he interrupted Streight’s Raid nearby in Alabama. Streight’s troops were one of the most unusual innovations in the war. The special forces were infantry mounted on mules and were defeated in their mission to take Rome.
- Union Monument
West 13th Street
This monument is dedicated to the heroism of Union soldiers who fought in the attack on Rome in May 1864. As Gen. Sherman reported, “We had a hard fight taking Rome.”
- Sweetwater Creek State Conservation Park (NRHP)
Mt. Vernon Rd.
Lithia springs, GA 30057
The park features a variety of natural and cultural resources, including the ruins of the New Manchester Manufacturing Company, a Civil War-era textile mill. Gen. Sherman’s forces burned the mill during the Battle of Atlanta in 1864 and its women factory workers were transported to the North.
Exit 44, I-20 West of Atlanta – Thornton Road. Turn left then across the bridge to Blares Bridge Road, the first right; then to Mt. Vernon turn left and follow signs to park.
Named for the oldest railroad tunnel in the Southeastern United States. This city played an important role in supplying both Union and Confederate armies throughout the Civil War. It was the site of Union and Confederate camps and hospitals throughout the Civil War. Several antebellum homes and buildings still exist along with Civil War breastworks and gun placements which were constructed by both armies.
Exit 336 off I-75, north on US 41
- Railroad Tunnel through Chetoogeta Mountain
Tunnel Hill, GA
An engineering marvel of its time, this 1850 tunnel linked the Atlantic Coast to the Western Frontier via the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, Tennessee. This is the oldest railroad tunnel in the Southeastern United States. The Great Locomotive Chase passed through the tunnel ending a few miles north at Ringgold. It served as a vital link to Confederate forces at Chickamauga and later to Sherman’s forces during the Atlanta Campaign. Early in the War, Jefferson Davis gave a rousing speech at the depot. During 1864, Union and Confederate forces contested the site on four occasions.
Exit 336 off I-75, north on US 41, approximately 3.5 miles, turn right on Cherry Street (across from Tunnel Hill golf course), go straight at railroad on Clisby Austin Road, cross covered bridge, a pull-off is to the left.
- Clisby Austin House
Clisby Austin Road
Tunnel Hill, GA
Tours by appointment
This restored home was the site of a Confederate hospital following the Battle of Chickamauga. Gen. Hood recovered here after his leg was amputated due to injuries at Chickamauga. Gen. Sherman used the house as his headquarters during April and May of 1864. The first dispatch by Gen. Sherman to mention a “push to salt water” following the capture of Atlanta was written while he headquartered here.
Exit 336 off I-75, north on US 41, approximately 3.5 miles, turn right on Cherry Street (across from Tunnel Hill golf course), go straight at railroad on Clisby Austin Road, cross covered bridge, house is on the right.
Prater’s Mill (NRHP)
Open from Mother’s Day weekend to the second weekend in October, by appointment
This 1855 three-story grist mill was camp site for 600 U.S. soldiers under Co. Eli Long in February, 1864, after skirmishing near Dalton. The 2,500 Confederate soldiers under Gen. Joseph Wheeler set up camp here en route to Tunnel Hill in April 1864. The grounds are open to the public during daylight hours. Buildings are open to the public during Prater’s Mill Country Fair held on Mother’s Day weekend and the second weekend in October annually.
Exit 341, I-75. Go north on Hwy 201 4.5 miles, turn right on Hwy 2, then 2.6 miles to the mill on the left.